Christopher Thompson

Christopher Thompson


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Christopher Thomson, hijo del general de división Christopher Thomson, nació en la India el 13 de abril de 1875. Después de haber sido educado en el Cheltenham College y en la Royal Military Academy, se unió a la Royal Engineers en 1894.

Thomson sirvió en Mauricio (1896-1899) y Sudáfrica (1899-1902) durante la Guerra de los Bóers, donde ganó dos medallas y fue mencionado en despachos.

Después de regresar de Sudáfrica, enseñó en la Escuela de Ingeniería de Chatham y en el Staff College de Camberley. En 1911, Thomson fue a la Oficina de Guerra, donde sirvió bajo las órdenes de Sir Henry Wilson, director de operaciones militares. Al año siguiente se convirtió en agregado militar del ejército serbio, donde permaneció durante las campañas turca y búlgara.

Al estallar la Primera Guerra Mundial fue enviado a Bélgica, donde fue oficial de enlace con el ejército belga. En febrero de 1915, Thomson se convirtió en agregado militar en Bucarest. Después de la invasión alemana de Rumania, Thomson fue enviado a Palestina y participó en el avance sobre Jerusalén. Estuvo al mando de una brigada en la captura de Jericó y recibió el D.S.O. en 1918.

Ascendido al rango de general de brigada, Thomson fue miembro de la delegación británica en la Conferencia de Paz de París y fue muy crítico con el Tratado de Paz de Versalles. En 1919, Thomson renunció al ejército para presentarse como candidato del Partido Laborista en Bristol. No tuvo éxito y también fue derrotado en las elecciones generales de 1922. También perdió en St. Albans en 1923. Thomson también publicó dos libros importantes sobre política europea, El suicidio de la vieja Europa (1919) y Vencedores y vencidos (1924).

Cuando Ramsay MacDonald formó el primer gobierno laborista en 1924, elevó a Thomson a la nobleza y lo nombró secretario de estado para el aire. Thomson fue en gran parte responsable de la decisión del gobierno de iniciar un programa de construcción de aeronaves que incluía R.100 y R101.

Después de la caída del gobierno de MacDonald, Thomson se convirtió en uno de los líderes del Partido Laborista en la Cámara de los Lores. Se desempeñó como presidente de la Sociedad Aeronáutica y la Liga Aérea. También publicó su libro Datos y problemas del aire (1927).

Tras la victoria laborista en las elecciones generales de 1929, Thomson fue nuevamente nombrado secretario de Estado de Aire. Christopher Thomson, barón de Cardington, murió cuando un pasajero de la aeronave R.101 que se estrelló el 5 de octubre de 1930.

Nuestro agregado militar en Bucarest fue el coronel Thomson, quien se culpó mucho por su participación en traer a Rumania a la guerra. "Me dijeron en casa que podía pedir lo que quisiera si trajeba a Rumania", dijo con pesar cuando el desastre se avecinaba, "pero creo que sería un poco irresponsable pedir algo ahora".

Me gustó mucho y una mañana me sorprendió escuchar a alguien decir que una de las bombas de anoche había caído sobre la Misión Militar. Di la vuelta enseguida. La bomba había volado la mitad del baño, que estaba en el piso superior, pero había dejado el baño al aire libre, proyectándose sobre las ruinas. El suministro de agua seguía funcionando, por lo que Thomson se estaba bañando como de costumbre.

Más tarde, cuando quedó claro que nada podría evitar una retirada general, Thomson me recogió en su coche y me encontré con las rodillas levantadas hasta la barbilla. "Eche un vistazo", dijo Thomson y levanté la alfombra para ver que el piso del auto estaba cubierto de botellas de champán. Thomson se rió. "Bueno", dijo, "si tiene que ser un retiro, no veo por qué debería ser uno seco".

Años más tarde, en Londres, conocí a Thomson que se apresuraba hacia el Strand vestido de civil y con un par de guantes delicadamente tintados. Me dijo que se dirigía a dirigirse a una reunión sindical. Supongo que debo haber sonreído y él debió haber notado mi mirada a sus guantes. "Sí", dijo, "sé que no parezco muy sindicalista, pero eso no puede evitarse". Se convirtió en Lord Thomson, Secretario de Estado de Aire en el primer gobierno laborista, y para el dolor de todos los que lo conocieron murió en el primer vuelo de la aeronave R.101.


Chris Thomsen

Chris Thomsen (nacido el 7 de noviembre de 1968) es un entrenador de fútbol americano. Es el entrenador de alas cerradas en la Universidad Estatal de Florida. Thomsen fue el entrenador en jefe del programa de fútbol americano Wildcats en la Universidad Cristiana de Abilene (ACU), de 2005 a 2011. Thomsen también se desempeñó como entrenador en jefe interino de fútbol en la Universidad Tecnológica de Texas para un juego en 2012, el Meineke Car Care Bowl de Texas.

Chris Thomsen
Posición actual
TítuloEntrenador de alas cerradas
EquipoEstado de Florida
ConferenciaACC
Detalles biográficos
Nació (07/11/1968) 7 de noviembre de 1968 (52 años)
Vernon, Texas
Carrera de juego
1988–1990TCU
1991–1993Abilene Christian
Puesto (s)Final dificil
Carrera de entrenador (HC a menos que se indique lo contrario)
1994–1999Abilene Christian (asistente)
2001–2002Wichita Falls HS (TX) (OC)
2003–2004Arkansas central (OL)
2005–2011Abilene Christian
2012Texas Tech (OL / HC interino)
2013–2016Estado de Arizona (OL)
2017–2019TCU (OL)
2020-presenteEstado de Florida (DHC / TE)
Historial de entrenador en jefe
En general52-21 (10 victorias vacantes) [A 1]
Bochas1–0
Torneos2-5 (1 victoria dejada vacante) [A 1]
Logros y honores
Campeonatos
2 estrella solitaria (2008, 2010)
Premios
Entrenador del año de la LSC South Division (2006)


Chris Thompson

Chris es un maestro de primaria registrado que también trabaja regularmente con todos los grupos de edad, desde Junior Infants hasta el año de transición. Chris ofrece talleres como narrador y facilitador de escritor creativo. Chris se especializa en proyectos de historia local, que involucran especialmente elementos intergeneracionales.

Visitas escolares (virtuales)

Opción 1

Tema: Historias en el paisaje

Clases: Infantes hasta sexta clase

Materiales: Las clases de último año necesitarán una hoja de papel normal A4 y se necesita algo con qué escribir para la actividad de creación de poemas en la sesión pregrabada. No se necesitan materiales para las clases junior.

Sesión 1 (pregrabada, 15 minutos)

El programa consta de dos videos de unos 15 minutos. Cada uno de ellos se puede jugar en cualquier orden.

Video 1: consiste en una serie de videos e imágenes "al escondite" para descubrir qué criaturas pueden estar escondidas en el jardín y el bosque. Hay guías para pausar el video.

Video 2: permite al dragón Chubbi contar su historia y ofrece ideas para actividades adicionales (y al aire libre).

El programa se entrega como una presentación de Power Point con segmentos de video vinculados. Las guías de pausa permiten la interacción y la discusión dirigida por el maestro. El tiempo promedio para la primera parte de la presentación puede ser de unos 30 minutos, incluida la discusión en clase.

Sesión 2 (en vivo, aproximadamente 1 hora)

Esto puede ser de hasta una hora, dividida en segmentos cortos para adaptarse a su clase. Esto permitirá que pequeños grupos de jóvenes supervisados ​​se sientan personalmente involucrados. Estas sesiones (con Chubbi) les darán a los niños la oportunidad de conocer al dragón y mostrar lo que han encontrado y mostrar imágenes y diseños que han hecho para él. Hay disponible una pieza muy fácil de creación de historias inusuales para bebés mayores y 1ª clase.

Esto puede ser de hasta una hora, dividido en segmentos cortos para permitir grupos pequeños. El tiempo se puede utilizar para una variedad de experiencias, que incluyen la creación de historias, la investigación de historias locales y el descubrimiento de más sobre los personajes de las antiguas historias irlandesas con algunos de mis "accesorios" especiales.

Hojas de trabajo y notas del maestro de amplificador:

Un conjunto completo de notas para profesores y hojas de trabajo en PDF imprimibles forman parte del paquete.

Opcion 2

Clases: bebés hasta el cuarto

Materiales: Papel, lápices, crayones, hojas de trabajo impresas de los paquetes del programa.

Sesión 1 (pregrabada, 15 minutos)

Película de video que explora la casa del Sr. Bear en el bosque y sus razones para promover la importancia de los árboles y la madera como material. La película incluirá puntos de pausa para la discusión en clase y actividades guiadas "dirigidas por el maestro".

La película introductoria implica un paseo por el bosque para encontrar la diversidad de árboles incluso familiares. También explorará el lugar de estos árboles en nuestro entorno. Habrá puntos de pausa regulares para fomentar la discusión guiada por el maestro y sugerencias para actividades adicionales. También se incluirán algunos conocimientos tradicionales sobre árboles. El material pregrabado presentará luego algunas semillas de árboles extremadamente inusuales que deberían permitir una discusión en clase animada e imaginativa y actividades creativas.

Sesión 2 (en vivo, hasta 1 hora)

Sesión de Zoom donde los niños conocen al Sr. Bear, le muestran sus historias, diseños u obras de arte, le cuentan sobre su árbol favorito y comparten, e incluso actúan, una nueva historia interactiva en vivo.

Sesión de Zoom donde la clase puede compartir sus historias o contar la historia de su árbol elegido. También "cultivaremos juntos un poema de árbol inusual

Hojas de trabajo y notas del maestro de amplificador:

Un conjunto completo de notas ilustradas para los profesores y un documento de guía README con enlaces activos

Visitas escolares (in situ)

* Las visitas in situ se suspenden temporalmente debido a COVID-19

Apasionado por el tesoro de los mitos y leyendas irlandesas, Chris ofrece espectáculos y talleres interactivos y entretenidos de la historia del patrimonio con disfraces y artefactos de estilo de la edad del hierro en los que los estudiantes se disfrazan y toman papeles activos en algunas maravillosas historias antiguas irlandesas, explorando un drama inusual. y experiencias de escritura creativa.

Chris tiene un enfoque particular en espectáculos y talleres diseñados para los grupos de edad más jóvenes. Con sus simpáticos amigos títeres, ofrece una variedad de módulos de actividades de taller y narración de cuentos sobre temas como 'Amigos de la rana', 'Vivimos aquí' (con el dragón Chubbi) y, como novedad de 2017, 'Útil Hilda', un especial programa todo sobre arañas. Chris también ofrece espectáculos de historias de árboles y talleres de actividades de arte y artesanía basados ​​en hierbas y árboles. Chris es una jardinera muy entusiasta con su propia plantación de madera dura de nueve acres y le encanta trabajar con materiales naturales.


MEGAN THOMPSON:

El oficial de policía Christopher Ross patrulla un recinto en el lado sur del área de Memphis y Hellipan con una tasa de delincuencia muy alta. Ross ve mucha violencia, consumo de drogas y prostitución. Pero esos no son los únicos tipos de llamadas a los que responde Ross.

CHRISTOPHER ROSS:

La madre está involucrada con su hijo y él está diagnosticado con TDAH y trastorno del estado de ánimo, y ella dijo que ha estado tomando sus medicamentos, pero que él se está volviendo rebelde, así que vamos a ver qué podemos hacer para ayudar.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Ross es parte del "Equipo de Intervención de Crisis" del departamento de policía de Memphis o CIT.

CHRISTOPHER ROSS:

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Oficiales especialmente capacitados para manejar a personas con enfermedades mentales. Aquí, Ross encuentra a un adolescente en crisis. Su mamá dice que está siendo acosado en la escuela.

CHRISTOPHER ROSS:

Entonces, todos en la escuela saben que eres inteligente, que tienes algo para ti y lo que están tratando de hacer es evitar que seas todo lo que puedes ser.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Ross está capacitado para reducir situaciones utilizando principalmente técnicas verbales y mantener seguros tanto a los oficiales como a los ciudadanos y mantener a las personas con problemas de salud mental fuera de la cárcel.

CHRISTOPHER ROSS:

De hecho te voy a dar mi número así que cuando tengas un problema llámame. ¿Okey? Si te sientes triste, si te sientes deprimido, llámame. Y puedes decirme lo que quieras decirme. No me importa lo que sea. Apretón de manos sobre eso.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Después de 20 minutos, el adolescente está tranquilo y acepta volver a entrar. Memphis inició su programa CIT hace 27 años, después de que la policía disparara y matara a un hombre con una enfermedad mental que los atacó con un cuchillo.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

La Ciudad formó un grupo de trabajo que incluía a la policía y la alianza nacional sobre enfermedades mentales. En ese momento, el profesor de psiquiatría de la Universidad de Memphis, randy dupont, dirigía el principal servicio de emergencia psiquiátrica de la ciudad. Ayudó a desarrollar el programa CIT.

RANDOLPH DUPONT:

En un evento que se intensificará y se convertirá en una crisis, esos primeros minutos serán bastante críticos. Entonces, lo que pensaron, cuando se les ocurrió este concepto, fue por qué no tomamos algo de esa experiencia, identifiquemos a los oficiales que quieren hacer esto y mdash que podrían ser buenos en eso. Bríndeles la mejor capacitación que podamos encontrar, y luego miremos y veamos qué tipo de diferencias hace.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Esa capacitación comienza con el cambio de actitudes y percepciones de los oficiales. Dupont dice que las personas en crisis a menudo actúan por miedo y pueden no entender lo que sucede a su alrededor. Un oficial no capacitado podría interpretar tal comportamiento como desafío o "incumplimiento".

RANDOLPH DUPONT:

Los oficiales a menudo son entrenados en la academia para ver el incumplimiento y responder y responder con un mayor uso de la fuerza. Eso es parte de su entrenamiento. Pero en CIT, lo que estamos tratando de decirles a los oficiales es, "analicemos el incumplimiento. Miremos estratégicamente". Entonces, estamos buscando esa interpretación diferente del comportamiento.

VINCENT BEASLEY:

En primer lugar, tenemos una charla sobre la compasión.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

El Mayor Vincent Beasley está a cargo del programa CIT de Memphis. Patrulló las calles como oficial de CIT durante 8 años.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

¿Todos los oficiales están preparados para hacer este tipo de trabajo?

VINCENT BEASLEY:

No lo creo. Realmente creo que se necesita una persona especial para hacer eso. No todo el mundo está hecho para eso. Porque hay que tener paciencia. Y tú, y realmente tienes que preocuparte por la gente. Y tienes que entender que no es el propio individuo. Es algo que está sucediendo. Es algo, ya sabes, en su cerebro que no funciona correctamente. Es un desequilibrio químico.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

CIT está teniendo un impacto mensurable. El Mayor Beasley dice que de las 14,000 llamadas al 911 el año pasado a las que respondieron los oficiales de CIT, solo 19 encuentros resultaron en lesiones a una persona con una enfermedad mental. Y la gran mayoría terminó sin que se detuviera a una persona. Alrededor de 4 mil fueron trasladados a centros de tratamiento psiquiátrico. Y solo unos 600 fueron llevados a la cárcel.

VINCENT BEASLEY:

Por lo tanto, no estamos llevando a tantas personas a las instalaciones penitenciarias que padecen enfermedades mentales. Porque nos damos cuenta de que no es necesario que estén allí en la mayoría de los casos.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Aquellos con enfermedades mentales que son arrestados terminan aquí, en la cárcel del condado de Shelby, donde hay un ala especial con 46 celdas para personas con enfermedades mentales. Cientos más de presos que toman medicación psiquiátrica están alojados en la población general de la cárcel, donde a muchos también se les ofrece tratamiento psiquiátrico y terapia de grupo para cosas como la adicción y el manejo de la ira.

RANDOLPH DUPONT:

¿Qué más harían todos cuando vomitara esto, '¿cómo me van a ayudar?'

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Unirse al Equipo de Intervención de Crisis del departamento de policía es voluntario, y los oficiales y despachadores deben asistir a 40 horas de capacitación. Hay tres días de juego de roles intensivo y basado en situaciones reales que los oficiales han enfrentado en el campo.

Veo que estás muy alterado. Y quiero ayudarte.

A nadie le importo. Y conmigo sin trabajo, hombre, no hay nada para lo que pueda estar aquí.

Quiero decir que desde el punto de vista, como usted dijo, lidiar con ser manejado por CIT.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Los aprendices y ndash vestidos aquí de civil y ndash también pasan un día conociendo a personas con enfermedades mentales y hellip para aprender sobre cómo es vivir con sus condiciones y hellip y sobre sus experiencias con la policía.

El departamento del alguacil vino a mi casa y pateó la puerta.

Me dijo que cerrara mi maldita boca.

CHRISTOPHER ROSS:

¿Podría hacer que un paramédico haga la escena aquí?

MEGAN THOMPSON:

hoy hay 274 oficiales de CIT activos como Chris Ross, en la fuerza de Memphis de casi 2100, o aproximadamente uno de cada ocho oficiales. El programa CIT se opera dentro de los presupuestos existentes del departamento. Los oficiales usan estos pines para identificarse. Ross, quien ha sido CIT durante tres años, nunca responde una llamada sin respaldo.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Cuando lo detiene un hombre que dice que es un veterano de Vietnam y tiene trastorno bipolar, Ross se detiene para hablar. Utiliza estrategias sencillas: presentarse y estar tranquilo.

CHRISTOPHER ROSS:

Soy el técnico Ross. Pero llámame Chris, ¿de acuerdo?

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Ross dice que una gran parte de su trabajo es simplemente escuchar y vigilar a las personas que sabe que podrían necesitar ayuda. Aquí revisa a un hombre que ha llegado a conocer.

CHRISTOPHER ROSS:

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Vive en un motel abandonado.

CHRISTOPHER ROSS:

¿Estás dormido? Ven aquí y habla conmigo. Solo quiero asegurarme de que estás bien. Asegúrate de que todo vaya bien.

Tengo ojos que lo ven todo. Soy un Power Ranger y un superhéroe. Realmente estás de mi lado.

CHRISTOPHER ROSS:

CHRISTOPHER ROSS:

Siempre trata de hacer que se sientan cómodos y hacerles saber que estoy aquí para ayudar. Y lo que digan, lo escuchas. Se lo repites para que sepan que los estás escuchando. Y eventualmente, establecerás esa relación y ellos sentirán más o menos que estás allí para ayudarlos, en lugar de tratar de encerrarlos.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Si la policía de Memphis determina que las personas pueden representar un peligro para ellos mismos o para otros, un oficial puede llevarlos al centro de evaluación de crisis para su evaluación y medicación. Muchos de los servicios aquí son gratuitos. Está dentro del Memphis Mental Health Institute, por lo que si necesitan atención hospitalaria a largo plazo, los pacientes no tienen que ir muy lejos. Después de que se vayan, también hay un nuevo programa ambulatorio para continuar la atención psiquiátrica. Las autoridades dicen que ha reducido el número de visitas repetidas tanto al centro de crisis como al instituto.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Mark Havener ha sido paciente del instituto de salud mental de Memphis. Tiene trastorno bipolar y comenzó a tener episodios psicóticos hace 17 años y se encerró en un armario durante horas e intentó suicidarse.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

¿Tienes idea de cuántas veces has intentado acabar con tu vida?

MARK HAVENER:

MEGAN THOMPSON:

MARK HAVENER:

Y perdí la cuenta de mis hospitalizaciones alrededor de & hellip. Me cansé de contar hasta 25.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Durante un episodio psicótico en 2002, Havener comenzó a estrangular a su esposa.

MARK HAVENER:

La agarré por el cuello. Y me levanté y la empujé contra el interior de la puerta principal de la casa.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Después de que él la dejó ir, ella llamó al 9-1-1 y los oficiales de CIT respondieron.

MARK HAVENER:

En este momento, soy prácticamente no verbal. No puedo expresar lo que está pasando, porque es un huracán dentro de mí. Remolino. Ni siquiera me esposan porque ven en qué condición estoy. Me tratan como un ser humano en crisis y no como un perpetrador potencial.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

Havener fue hospitalizado y nunca enfrentó cargos criminales. Recibió tratamiento y hoy está estable, se ha reconciliado con su esposa y trabaja como consejero de otras personas con enfermedades mentales. También se ha convertido en un defensor, compartiendo su historia con los nuevos aprendices de CIT.

MEGAN THOMPSON:

las estrategias desarrolladas en Memphis ahora se llaman el "modelo de Memphis" y ahora han sido adoptadas por casi 3000 de las 18,000 agencias de aplicación de la ley del país. Los estudios han demostrado que los oficiales capacitados en CIT tienen menos probabilidades de arrestar a personas con enfermedades mentales que los oficiales no capacitados. Y para Chris Ross, esa es una de las cosas que más le gustan de este trabajo. El potencial para ayudar a la gente y a Hellip en lugar de meterlos en la cárcel.

CHRISTOPHER ROSS:

Y eso es algo que recuerdo que me mantendrá activo cuando a veces las cosas se pongan difíciles en las calles. Por eso trabajo, por eso lo hago. Porque si llegamos al punto en el que estamos marcando la diferencia, no tendremos que encerrar a tanta gente.


Cómo la Prohibición dio a luz a NASCAR

Incluso después de que Junior Johnson rompiera pistas de tierra en todo el sur y lograra cinco victorias en el circuito de NASCAR en 1955, las carreras de autos stock & # x2019s, la estrella más reciente, continuaron regresando a casa en las montañas de Carolina del Norte para trabajar en el negocio familiar & # x2014moonshining.

Los antepasados ​​de Johnson & # x2019 habían estado haciendo alcohol ilegal desde los días de la Rebelión del Whisky, y tantas cajas de aguardiente estaban empacadas dentro de la casa de Johnson & # x2019s mientras él crecía que necesitaba trepar por encima de montones de ellos solo para llegar a su cama cada noche. . Cuando las autoridades allanaron la granja familiar y arrestaron al padre de Johnson & # x2019 en 1935, confiscaron más de 7,000 galones de whisky en lo que entonces era la mayor incautación de alcohol ilegal en el interior.

El futuro miembro del Salón de la Fama de NASCAR y propietario del equipo descubrió por primera vez su talento detrás del volante mientras corría a la luz de la luna cuando era adolescente. & # x201CMoonshining fue parte de mi crecimiento, pero también fue parte de mi entrenamiento en las carreras de autos, & # x201D Johnson le dijo al St. Louis Post-Dispatch en 1990. & # x201C Estar en ese negocio, tenía que tener una gran coche rápido y tenías que ser capaz de correr más rápido que los recaudadores de impuestos o la patrulla de carreteras o el sheriff o quienquiera que intentara perseguirte para intentar aprehenderlo. & # x201D

Junior Johnson (izquierda) ayudando a afinar un motor mejorado que se usaba en autos que entregaban luz de luna en el sur rural de los EE. UU. Johnson creció en una granja y, como muchos de los pioneros de las carreras de autos stock, desarrolló sus habilidades de conducción corriendo luz de luna como un hombre joven. (Crédito: ISC Images & amp Archives a través de Getty Images)

De hecho, a partir de la era de la Prohibición, los conductores que transportaban alcohol ilegal desde áreas rurales o importaban alcohol ilegalmente de Canadá tuvieron que hacer cambios ingeniosos en sus vehículos para eludir a las autoridades en carreteras sinuosas con curvas cerradas. Si no hubiera sido por el whisky, NASCAR no se hubiera formado. Eso es un hecho, dijo Johnson a la BBC.

Las carreras de autos de serie tienen sus raíces en los Apalaches, donde la producción y venta de whisky casero ofrecía una salvación líquida para las granjas familiares que buscaban escapar de la pobreza paralizante, especialmente durante la Gran Depresión, que afectó a la región con especial dureza. & # x201C Aquellos fueron tiempos difíciles en las colinas e hiciste cosas que no deberías & # x2019t para sobrevivir & # x201D, dijo el miembro del Salón de la Fama de NASCAR Curtis Turner, quien comenzó a contrabandear a los nueve años, según NASCAR.com.

El alcohol ilegal en los Apalaches continuó prosperando incluso después de la derogación de la Prohibición & # x2019 gracias a la persistencia de los condados secos y al deseo de evadir los elevados impuestos federales sobre el alcohol. & # x201CMoonshiners no & # x2019t querían compartir los ingresos fiscales o cualquiera de esta empresa que habían construido desde cero con el gobierno federal, & # x201D dice Neal Thompson, autor de Conducir con el diablo: Southern Moonshine, Detroit Wheels y el nacimiento de NASCAR.

Los agentes capturan un vehículo marcado como un taxi cargado con licor apilado cuando se pinchó una llanta, 1922. (Crédito: Buyenlarge / Getty Images)

Irónicamente, fue un devoto abstemio que hizo más por el negocio del contrabando en los años posteriores a la Ley Seca que nadie. Si bien el fabricante de automóviles Henry Ford prohibió el consumo de alcohol a sus trabajadores, su Ford V-8 fue literalmente el motor que impulsó la luz de la luna después de su debut en 1932.

& # x201CBootleggers había experimentado con diferentes autos a lo largo del tiempo, pero nunca fueron lo suficientemente rápidos para sus gustos, & # x201D dice Thompson. & # x201C Resulta que Ford creó accidentalmente el vehículo perfecto para la entrega de alcohol ilegal. & # x201D

& # x201C Con el Ford V-8, de repente apareció un motor que coincidía con su profesión, & # x201D Thompson explica. & # x201C Era lo suficientemente rápido como para mantenerse un paso por delante de la ley, lo suficientemente accidentado para las carreteras de montaña y tenía un maletero y un asiento trasero lo suficientemente grandes como para meter la luz de la luna. & # x201D

Con relativa facilidad, los mecánicos también podrían acelerar el Ford V-8 para ganar algunas millas adicionales por hora de velocidad, lo que podría marcar la diferencia en las persecuciones de autos. Para eludir aún más a los agentes fiscales y a la policía, los contrabandistas engañaron sus autos con características que parecen sacadas directamente de una película de espías o una caricatura de Looney Tunes y dispositivos que con solo presionar el botón podrían liberar cortinas de humo, manchas de aceite e incluso un cubo. montones de tachuelas para pinchar los neumáticos de sus perseguidores.

Durante la década de 1930, los moonshiners comenzaron a competir con sus autos de whisky en los recintos feriales y los hipódromos locales, donde descubrieron que la gente, a veces, decenas de miles de ellos, estaban dispuestos a pagar para verlos demostrar sus habilidades de conducción.

No eran solo los conductores los que tenían alcohol ilegal en la sangre. & # x201C Lo que la mayoría de los cronistas de las carreras de autos stock y NASCAR no han notado, & # x201D escribe Daniel S. Pierce en NASCAR real: White Lightning, Red Clay y Big Bill France, & # x201Cis que un gran porcentaje de los primeros mecánicos, propietarios de automóviles, promotores y propietarios de pistas tenían vínculos profundos con el negocio ilegal del alcohol. & # x201D

Eso incluyó a Raymond Parks, & # x201C, la primera persona en formar un equipo de carreras legítimo y formalizado & # x201D, dice Thompson. Parks se escapó de su casa en las montañas del norte de Georgia a los 14 años para convertirse en aprendiz de un licántropo que había conocido en la cárcel del condado después de ser encerrado por comprar licor para su padre. Trabajando en una destilería y transportando whisky de maíz por Atlanta, Parks hizo una fortuna con el contrabando. Pronto, Parks comenzó a invertir sus ganancias mal habidas en empresas legítimas como estaciones de servicio y el creciente deporte de las carreras de autos stock.

Roy Hall (centro) y Raymond Parks (derecha) después de que Hall ganara la carrera modificada de 160 millas para Parks. (Crédito: ISC Images & amp Archives a través de Getty Images / Raymond Park Collection)

El contrabandista de Georgia no tuvo que aventurarse lejos para encontrar dos pilotos talentosos para su equipo de carreras. Sus primos Lloyd Seay y Roy Hall resultaron ser algunos de los mejores corredores de moonshine en el norte de Georgia, evadiendo la captura con su gran velocidad y atrevidos giros en horquilla de 180 grados. Y justo al final de la calle de una de las estaciones de servicio propiedad de Parks estaba el garaje de Red Vogt, conocido como & # x201Cthe contrabandistas & # x2019 mecánico & # x201D.

Seay ganó la primera gran carrera de stock car en 1938 en Atlanta & # x2019s Lakewood Speedway frente a 20.000 fanáticos, y Hall finalmente ganaría el campeonato nacional de stock car en 1941. Cuando las carreras de stock car se reanudaron después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial en septiembre de 1945, se produjo un motín casi se produjo en Lakewood Speedway después de que la policía prohibió a cinco corredores, incluido Hall, quien había sido condenado por infracciones de transporte de licor. Con 30,000 fanáticos coreando por Hall, a quien le revocaron su licencia de conducir y su licencia de conducir # x2019 después de ser arrestado no menos de 16 veces, las autoridades cedieron y dejaron correr a los contrabandistas. Hall tomó la bandera a cuadros.

Atlanta, sin embargo, no dio la bienvenida a los moonshiners, y otro importante piloto de autos de serie llamado Bill France comenzó a reclutar a los contrabandistas para competir en Virginia y las Carolinas. En diciembre de 1947, Francia reunió a los principales conductores, mecánicos y propietarios de autos stock en Daytona Beach, Florida, para estandarizar las reglas, una reunión que terminó con la formación de la Asociación Nacional de Carreras de Autos Stock (NASCAR).


¿Es Chris Thompson el regreso a la lista en los drafts de fútbol fantasy de 2020?

Con el repentino salida de Leonard Fournette, hay un promedio de 267 toques en juego en el backfield de los Jacksonville Jaguars. Mientras todos escriben un montón de artículos sobre la perspectiva de la ex selección de quinta ronda Ryquell Armstead, todos podríamos estar perdiendo la verdadera pregunta. ¿Podrá Chris Thompson recuperarse a la relevancia del fútbol fantasy en 2020 en Jacksonville?

¿Qué ha hecho Chris Thompson por la fantasía en el pasado?

A pesar de que aparentemente vive gratis en el IR, Chris Thompson ha tenido relevancia en el fútbol fantasy furtivo en cualquier tipo de formato de puntuación de la PPR. Desde 2015, ha promediado 55 objetivos por temporada, a pesar de que casi nunca juega una lista completa de juegos (eso equivale a un promedio de 4.6 objetivos por juego).

Con la noticia de que Fournette ya no es miembro de los Jacksonville Jaguars, de repente hay otros 100 objetivos vacantes del año anterior. Thompson ya era un candidato principal para comerse algunos de esos, incluso con Fournette en la imagen, pero ¿podría obtener una porción aún mayor del pastel sin Fournette?

Es cierto que han pasado algunos años desde que Thompson fue un nombre habitual en el fútbol de fantasía. Las lesiones han sido un denominador común para desviarlo de consolidarse como una pieza estable del roster. Pero si nosotros mira hacia atrás algunas temporadas, su campaña de 2017 realmente destaca. De las semanas 1 a la 11 de ese año, fue el décimo mejor corredor en el fútbol de fantasía en anotaciones de PPR y promedió 14.03 puntos por juego durante ese lapso, antes de lesionarse.

Fantasy Analytics de Thompson

Repasando su histórico Puntuación de coherencia (CS) desde 2017, su CS de 4.36 esa temporada ocupó el puesto 23 entre todos los corredores. Demostró un techo sobresaliente de 30.8 puntos, lo que ayudó a mantener su puntaje a pesar de promediar solo 6.4 acarreos por juego.


Thompson trabaja como gerente de distrito en DENTSPLY Implants. Obtuvo su licenciatura en finanzas comerciales de la Universidad Estatal de California en Fullerton. & # 912 & # 93

Tres escaños generales en la Junta de Síndicos del Distrito Escolar de Fullerton estaban disponibles para las elecciones generales del 4 de noviembre de 2014. No se presentaron candidatos para postularse en las elecciones, lo que dejó a los titulares Janny Meyer, Chris Thompson y Beverly Berryman sin oposición para la reelección. . Todos ganaron sus asientos por defecto.

Resultados

Esta elección no apareció en la boleta por falta de oposición. Los titulares Janny Meyer, Chris Thompson y Beverly Berryman ganaron la reelección por defecto. & # 911 & # 93

Fondos

Thompson informó $ 98.52 en aumentos de efectivo varios y $ 52.00 en gastos al Registro de Votantes del Condado de Orange, dejando $ 46.52 en efectivo disponible al 30 de junio de 2014. & # 913 & # 93

Endosos

Thompson no recibió ningún respaldo oficial en esta elección.

Distrito Escolar de Fullerton, Elección General At-Large, término de 4 años, 2010
Partido Candidato Voto & # 160% Votos
     No partidista Chris Thompson 28.1% 16,405
     No partidista Janny Meyer 27.1% 15,812
     No partidista Beverly Berryman Titular 24.2% 14,098
     No partidista Aaruni Thakur 20.6% 12,011
Total de votos 58,326
Fuente: Registro de Votantes del Condado de Orange, "Archivo de resultados electorales: Elecciones generales de 2010", consultado el 1 de octubre de 2014

Sobre nosotros

DC Thomson es una empresa privada y una de las organizaciones de medios líderes en el Reino Unido. Tiene su sede en Dundee, Escocia, con una base en Londres en la mundialmente famosa Fleet Street. La empresa publica periódicos, revistas y se ha diversificado en los intereses de los nuevos medios, la tecnología digital, el comercio minorista y la televisión.

DC Thomson Group incluye a la compañía de genealogía global Findmypast, el proveedor líder de servicios empresariales de TI Brightsolid, el estudio multimedia Beano Studios y, junto con DC Thomson Media, los editores de revistas Puzzler Media y The Stylist Group.

DC Thomson es una empresa familiar establecida que tiene sus orígenes en el espíritu empresarial de William Thomson a principios del siglo XIX, cuando el negocio principal de la empresa era el transporte marítimo. A mediados del siglo XIX, la familia Thomson invirtió en publicaciones, interesándose en Dundee Courier y comprándolo en 1886. En esa etapa había dos editoriales importantes en Dundee, la otra estaba dirigida por Sir John Leng. En 1905, las firmas Thomson y Leng se fusionaron bajo el liderazgo del hijo de William Thomson, David Couper (D.C.) Thomson.

A lo largo del siglo XX, DC Thomson se convirtió en uno de los principales editores del Reino Unido. La diversificación del negocio actual destaca el estilo empresarial de la empresa.

La compañía tiene actualmente cuatro directores, Christopher HW Thomson, Richard Hall, Andrew F Thomson y David Thomson, todos los cuales son descendientes del fundador. Otros miembros de la familia Thomson continúan trabajando dentro del negocio.


Oral History 14.03.10CT with Christopher Thompson

Museum researchers conduct recorded interviews with immigrants, refugees, settlement workers and others who have lived experiences relating to immigration. As a learning institution, these accounts help us understand how individuals recollect, interpret, or construct meaning from events and experiences that are within living or family memory. Excerpts of these audio and video interviews, such as those accessible here, are used by the museum in various ways. Please consult the Reproductions and Use information page for details on how to request the original, unmodified recording.

Clip Context

Chris describes travelling by ship from New Zealand to Canada, and the fun tradition in which he participated when the ship crossed the equator.

Transcripción

And then we had about five days before we got to Honolulu, and during that time, we crossed the international date line, and we also crossed the Equator at almost the exact—almost exactly the same time. And one of the things that gets done to people who have never crossed the Equator before, on a ship like that, was to throw them into the – swimming pool, and preferably fully dressed. And so we got our soaking, and after that, they threw ice cream into the pool, so we got thoroughly messed up. And one of the people I’d made friends with, at that time, decided it would be rather fun—because this was all officiated, the captain and the officers were all—were all there—We weren’t travelling first class, so he didn’t very often come—to that part of the boat, so—but we decided it would be rather fun to push the captain into the swimming pool, which we did, and he didn’t appreciate that very much at all. Anyway, that was the only prank that we got up to on the boat, but otherwise, we had a great time.

Biografía

Christopher Thompson was born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1942. After completing his master's degree in physics in 1965, Chris moved to Ottawa where he had gotten a job at Atomic Energy of Canada as part of the Industrial Metrology Group. Chris departed Auckland just after Christmas in 1965 and sailed to Vancouver on board the Oronsay. From Vancouver, he travelled by train to Ottawa. Chris worked at Atomic Energy of Canada for four years before moving to Montreal, where he worked at the Montreal Neurological Institute for 37 years. He moved to Montreal after marrying his French-Canadian wife Nicole in July of 1970. Not having any family of his own in Canada, Chris integrated into Nicole's large family and adopted many French-Canadian traditions. Chris is also a part of the group Kiwis in Montreal which provides opportunities for New Zealanders in Montreal to meet informally a few times throughout the year. Chris and Nicole have four children and six grandchildren.

More Information

Video oral history conducted by Laura Sanchini on 10 March 2014 in Montreal, Quebec. The interview is not restricted contact Museum staff for access to the full interview.

Uso

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Credit format: [Name], arrived from [Country], [Date of Arrival]. Canadian Museum of Immigration at Pier 21 [Object ID Number].

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No warranties are given. The license may not give you all of the permissions necessary for your intended use. For example, other rights such as publicity, privacy, or moral rights may limit how you use the material.


The De Veres of Wivenhoe - A Public Talk given by Christopher Thompson

“Wivenhoe, the De Veres and the Wars of the Roses” A talk given by Christopher Thompson on Friday 11th October, 2013 in St Mary’s Church Wivenhoe, organised by the Wivenhoe History Group

Christopher Thompson, a local academic historian, a former Town Mayor of Wivenhoe, a founding member of the Wivenhoe History Group and a Senior Research Fellow of the Humanities Research Institute at the University of Buckingham, delivered an impressive talk on the De Vere family and their impact on Wivenhoe in the 1400s and 1500s. This talk was given in St Mary’s Church on Friday, 11th October 2013 and was attended by 120 people.

It would seem from the research Christopher Thompson has undertaken that Wivenhoe Hall, built initially by John De Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford, in the 1440s was considerably extended in about 1485 when 80,000 bricks were commissioned. This made it a far larger Hall than anyone today realises.

At the height of the family’s fortunes, around the year 1500, the Hall would have had a staff of 48 people. It would have been a building larger than that at Layer Marney. This would have been at a time when the population of Wivenhoe would have been little more than 200 people and a time really before Wivenhoe’s reputation for ship-building and fishing had become established.

It was sold by Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford in the late 1500s. By 1594 the house was suffering from decay and was last shown on a map of Essex of 1611. In a later map, of 1627, it had pretty much disappeared altogether although a small wing of the extensive Hall survived into the early 1900s. A tiny part survives today and is known as the Folly. No detailed drawings of the original Hall have ever been discovered but it was certainly the largest house ever to have existed in Wivenhoe, if not in Essex.

Hereditary Map of the De Veres

There is a really useful hereditary map of the De Vere’s from Aubrey de Vere (born 1040, died 1112) through to Henry De Vere, 18th Earl of Oxford (born 24Feb1593, died June 1625) which has been published by the De Vere Society (www.deveresociety.co.uk) haga clic aquí for a link to the map in pdf format.

Wills of the De Veres

The Oxfordshire Authorship Site managed by Nina Green contains a lot of information relating to the De Veres / Earls of Oxford, and particularly those who were the subject of Christopher Thompson’s talk. Nina Green has translated a number of wills and the ones which are of most interest to us here in Wivenhoe are:

The last will and testament of John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford (died 1513) can be found transcribed by clicking here.

His second wife’s will (dated 1537) can be found by clicking here. She is buried in our parish church here in Wivenhoe.

The will of the 16th Earl of Oxford, who died in 1562, can be found by clicking here.

The De Veres – Lecture by Christopher Thompson

Chris Thompson giving his lecture from the lectern in St Mary’s Church, Wivenhoe

The following is the text of a Lecture given by Christopher Thompson on Friday 11th October, 2013 in St Mary’s Church, Wivenhoe to 120 people. Christopher Thompson is a Senior Research Fellow of the Humanities Research Institute at the University of Buckingham. He is also a founder member of the Wivenhoe History Group which is committed to conducting research into different aspects of Wivenhoe’s rich past.

WIVENHOE HALL, THE DE VERES AND THE WARS OF THE ROSES

The de Vere family probably originated from Ver in Normandy. Aubrey de Vere was one of the beneficiaries of the Norman Conquest, although whether he fought at the battle of Hastings in 1066 is not certain. Twenty years later, he held nineteen manors, eight of them in Essex which remained the core of the family’s landed estate for the centuries to come. His namesakes and successors were awarded the title of Earls of Oxford in 1141 by the Empress Matilda during her struggle for the throne with King Stephen and confirmed in the title for switching sides to support Stephen by King Henry II.

The de Veres were never very wealthy landowners and, by the standards of other Earls, were relatively poor. Part of the reason for this was that they tended to marry either gentry heiresses who did not bring much land with them or missed out on the really wealthy noble heiresses. They also experienced the drain on their resources that a number of long-lived dowager countesses imposed: the widows of the 8th, 9th and 11th Earls drew their incomes from the family’s estate from 1371 to 1453.

The one great advance the family made, which happened in the reign of Richard II, was the rise of the 9th Earl, who became Marquess of Dublin and Duke of Ireland: his career, however, ended in marital problems, military defeat and exile where he died in 1392. His successors were much more careful and cautious.

This is where the connection between Wivenhoe and the de Veres begins. John de Vere was born in April, 1408, the eldest son of the 11th Earl of Oxford. His father died in 1417 leaving him in the wardship of King Henry V’s relatives, the Dukes of Exeter and Bedford. The former arranged John de Vere’s marriage to Elizabeth Howard, the heiress to her grandparents’ estates in East Anglia and Essex and also to those of her mother, Joan Walton. (Walton Hall to which the family gave its name still survives on the road between Linford and Mucking in the South of the county.) Amongst the twenty-eight manor she brought to the marriage was that of Wivenhoe. The marriage turned the 12th Earl of Oxford from being a poor Earl into one in the middle ranks of the English peerage and produced at least eight children who survived into adulthood, five of them boys and three girls.

Wivenhoe Hall and John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford

At some stage in the 1440s, John de Vere and his Countess had a large house constructed for them here in Wivenhoe. Our first surviving letters from Wivenhoe date from 1451. They are not terribly exciting, just the sort of correspondence one might expect from the household of an important peer dealing with the affairs of his household and locality in Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk. One of the Earl’s allies, Thomas Denys, the Coroner of Norwich, for example, wrote from here to John Paston in Norfolk in March, 1451 about the Earl’s movements and about legal business he proposed to conduct when he came to Norfolk. Oxford himself wrote a few weeks later to ask Paston to help one of his brother, Sir Richard de Vere’s servants, in a suit then being conducted with a local landowner in Norfolk. Thomas Denys was able to count on the Earl’s support in his attempts to woo a prospective wife no later than May, 1453. Denys, moreover, was the object of an interesting complaint to the Parliament of 1454 by another Norfolk figure, Walter Ingham. He alleged that Denys had forged a letter in Oxford’s name instructing him to travel to Wivenhoe to discuss “divers great matters touching my said Lord” only to waylay him en route with armed men in an attempt to settle a dispute over money: according to Ingham, he was grievously wounded in the ensuing skirmish. Denys was imprisoned in the Fleet prison as a result but the final outcome is not known.

More interestingly still, we have letters from the Countess of Oxford a year or more later asking for John Paston’s help in resolving a dispute over a Norfolk manor in favour of James Arblaster and later thanking him for his good will towards Arblaster and his wife, Agnes. There are similar letters written from Wivenhoe over legal matters and debts from the Earl of Oxford in 1460 and 1461. Both the Earl and his Countess appear, prima facie, to have been devoted to the adoration of the Holy Trinity to judge by their salutations at the end of most of their letters from Wivenhoe. Such letters give them a degree of humanity we should not otherwise be able to appreciate.

Like other Lords and landowners, the 12th Earl could not entirely avoid military service in France in the latter stages of the Hundred Years’ War but his service was brief (in 1436 and 1441-1442). He was also involved in local quarrels with the Bishop of Norwich and the Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk in East Anglia. But, although he was initially sympathetic to the complaints of Richard, Duke of York about King Henry VI’s regime in the early-1450s, he managed to distance himself from the struggles between supporters of the King and adherents of the Duke of York in the late-1450s. He was not involved in any of the battles of that period: he did not appear at any of the partisan Councils or Parliaments of those years and had no close links with any of the main protagonists. Of all the men of his rank, he was the only one who succeeded in remaining neutral.

Execution of the 12th Earl of Oxford

This is why his arrest and execution for conspiracy against the new Yorkist King, Edward IV, in February, 1462 was and is so surprising. Oxford was not a partisan figure at all. His eldest son and heir, Aubrey de Vere, was, however, almost certainly a supporter of the deposed King, Henry VI, and of Henry’s formidable wife, Margaret of Anjou. There is some evidence that men in the Earl of Oxford’s affinity – the grouping of allies and friends, officers and tenants associated with the de Veres – were in touch with Margaret of Anjou and involved in a conspiracy with her. John Montgomery of Great Tey and William Tyrell of Gipping in Suffolk fall into this category. Oxford, moreover, was on good terms with one of the rising Yorkists, John Howard, the future Duke of Norfolk, of Tendring Hall at Stoke by Nayland with whom he had on occasion hunted. The involvement of the 12th Earl of Oxford in this conspiracy was totally out of character and his execution at the hands of Edward IV’s regime was to have consequences no one could have foreseen at that time.

The de Vere estates, including Wivenhoe, were seized in the aftermath and granted some months later to Edward IV’s younger brother, Richard, Duke of York. The King pardoned the dowager Countess of Oxford in May, 1462 and allowed Margaret Neville, the sister of his most important backer, the Earl of Warwick, to marry John de Vere, the heir to the de Vere title and estate sometime between August, 1462 and July, 1463. Early in 1464, Edward IV restored the 13th Earl to his family inheritance. He was allowed to re-inter his father’s body and proved an energetic participant in local government in the Eastern counties. He was on friendly terms with the Bourchiers, Earls of Essex, whose house at Halstead was not far from his own house at Castle Hedingham and with John Howard, hunting with him at Lavenham on at least two occasions in 1465 and 1466.

But this reconciliation with Edward IV’s regime was only superficial. For the Yorkist regime, for Edward, his brothers and supporters, the 13th Earl of Oxford had a deep hatred and loathing. His father-in-law, Richard Neville, the king-making Earl of Warwick, was, by the late-1460s, increasingly alienated from Edward IV and prepared to do a deal with Margaret of Anjou to restore Henry VI to his throne. Oxford, indeed, was probably the only man equally acceptable to the Lancastrian partisans around Margaret of Anjou and to the Neville family. When the Earl of Warwick fled to France in March, 1470, Oxford went with him and returned with him to overthrow Edward IV in the following September. As temporary Constable of England, Oxford was able to oversee the execution of the Earl of Worcester who had presided over his own father’s trial and execution and to play a prominent role in commissions in Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk. But Warwick’s triumph did not last long. Despite Oxford raising 4,000 men in Essex and East Anglia, Edward IV successfully landed in England and defeated Henry IV, Warwick and Oxford at the battle of Barnet on 14th April, 1471. Oxford’s men were caught up in the fog enveloping the battlefield, pursued their immediate opponents but were overwhelmed by Edward’ s forces when they returned to the battle. Oxford lost everything. He fled to Scotland and then to France before attempting abortive invasions at St Osyth in May, 1473 – at least 10 men from Wivenhoe joined him – and at St Michael’s Mount in Cornwall in the following September. It was to no avail. He was forced to surrender in February, 1474. His life and those of his brothers as well as his friend, the Lancastrian Lord Beaumont, were spared but he was attainted and sent to the Castle of Hammes near Calais as a prisoner for the next ten years.

His fate was better than those of his mother and wife. His mother was by the early-1470s elderly and frail. Her husband and eldest son had been executed for treason and three of her remaining sons were about to be attainted for treason as well. She appeared to be a landowner without legal heirs despite having put her estates in the hands of feoffees – trustees in modern parlance – to ensure that her will would be performed and to the benefit of two of her daughters. But, at Christmas 1472 when she was living in sanctuary at the nunnery of Stratford-le-Bow in Essex, she was visited by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the younger brother of King Edward and the future Richard III. He told her that the King had given him her lands and apparently threatened her with being sent to the North of England. According to contemporary accounts, she was greatly distressed. Her trustees resisted for over a year before Duke Richard got his way. Although Gloucester later claimed that he had offered the dowager Countess an annuity of 500 marks for life, this was worth less than half the value of her estates. There is other evidence to show that Gloucester deprived the widowed Countess of Warwick in June, 1473 of her lands with the King’s connivance. The historian who has looked most closely into these matters concluded that the stories of the dowager Countess’s coercion were, on balance, probably true. Shortly thereafter, in 1473, she died.

The 12th Earl’s wife was treated even more harshly. She was deprived of her title and, without lands of her own, was deprived of any dower out of her husband’s estate. One chronicler, Robert Fabyan, reported that she had to live on the charity of her friends and what she could earn from sewing. One London mercer left her money in his will in 1478 and the Duke of Norfolk made two separate gifts of 20 shillings each to her between 1483 and 1485. It was not until 1482 that she was finally granted a pension of £100 p.a. That must have been a great relief although small in comparison with the income she would have had in her father’s or husband’s households.

What happened to Wivenhoe Hall? It passed first of all to Richard, Duke of Gloucester and was then sold by him for 1100 marks in 1481. The purchaser was the man I have already mentioned several times, John Howard, later 1st Duke of Norfolk.

The Howards, 1st Duke of Norfolk

John Howard was a relatively local man. He was the son of Robert Howard (d.1436) and one of the daughters of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk (d.1399). We do not know exactly when he was born but it was probably in the mid-1420s. He inherited a small estate from his grandfather in 1437 called Tendring Hall at Stoke-by-Nayland right on the Essex-Suffolk border. The Howards were local gentry, not nobles and not large landowners of the kind they were to become in the course of John Howard’s lifetime.

John Howard owed his rise less to his marriages, which were to Catherine, the daughter of Lord Moleyns between 1440 and 1442 and, secondly, to Margaret Chedworth (nee Wyfold), than to his family connections and local service. He began his career in the household of his cousin, John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, and was involved in all sorts of local disputes over land, particularly hunting on land owned by the enemies of his master, the de la Pole family. One of his contemporaries described him as a wild bullock at this stage of his life. He was elected to the House of Commons four times between 1449 and 1461, serving as a Justice of the Peace in Norfolk and Suffolk and as a Sheriff of both counties. By the early-1460s, he had built up an estate of sixteen manors to which he added a further six forfeited by the de Veres in 1463. He was a man of local substance by then and an assiduous student of his own accounts which show him to have been a careful and efficient administrator and manager.

What really made Howard’s career was his military service to the Yorkist cause. He led the Duke of Norfolk’s men to the largest battle of the Wars of the Roses at Towton in 1461 and then served as part of the Yorkist army besieging the castles at Alnwick, Bamburgh and Dunstanburgh in 1462-1463. He was also involved in campaigns in Wales and the North of England against the Lancastrians in 1464. After the brief return of Henry VI to the throne in 1470, Howard fought for Edward IV at the battle of Barnet in 1471 which destroyed the Lancastrian cause for a generation. If he had been asked what his profession was, he would certainly have said he was a soldier first and foremost.

A soldier, yes, but also a diplomat. Edward IV started to use him in missions to the Dukes of Burgundy and to Louis XI of France in 1467. In 1468, he went with the King’s sister, Margaret, to Burgundy for her marriage to Charles the Bold of Burgundy. One of the French chroniclers and diplomats in the 1470s, Philippe de Commines, who got to know Howard well, thought that English representatives were not as cunning as his own countrymen but were more straightforward: even so, it was necessary not to affront them and dangerous to meddle with them. This fits well with what is known of Howard, who like other English Councillors benefited from a pension of 1200 crowns from Louis XI of France.

When Edward IV died in 1483, Howard was a significant figure in East Anglia and had been a baron since 1470. Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the dead King’s younger brother, secured his support two days after he seized the throne by creating him Duke of Norfolk and Earl Marshal (28 June, 1483). Through his mother, Howard had had a claim to a half share in the Mowbray family’s estates when the last Duke of Norfolk died in 1476 but Richard of Gloucester had had his rights overridden. Now, Howard got the Mowbray lands in East Anglia, Surrey and Sussex as a reward plus twenty former de Vere manors in Essex and East Anglia.

Norfolk as he now was had had dealings with Richard before, over the acquisition of Wivenhoe in 1481, for example, but his support had been, in effect, bought. He was to prove completely loyal to the usurper both during the rebellion of the Duke of Buckingham in August, 1483 and following the landing of Henry Tudor in the summer of 1485. Claims have been made that Norfolk as Richard III’s Constable of the Tower of London must have been privy to the murder of Edward IV’s heir and his younger brother, the two princes, but this is not a view held by most historians of the period. (At the risk of offending the Richard III Society, I ought to say that Richard III was undoubtedly responsible for their deaths: Londoners knew that they were no longer alive well before 1485 as Dominic Mancini’s account shows: and their mother, who negotiated the marriage of her eldest daughter to Henry VII after the battle of Bosworth with Margaret Beaufort, Henry Tudor’s mother, clearly knew so too. But that is a side issue.)

About Wivenhoe Hall from 1485

Norfolk spent most of the period between 1483 and 1485 in the Eastern counties where his estates and homes mainly lay. His accounts for the period of Richard III’s reign give us our first detailed information about Wivenhoe Hall. There was clearly a very large park here. Its keeper was paid 4d for his wages on one occasion. Hunting took place in the park and, possibly, shooting too. Rabbits, always one of the staples of medieval diets, were trapped here and either eaten or sent to the Duke’s other residences. Two pools were laid out at the Hall and evidently cleaned too at a cost of 6s 8d and 13s 4d on the occasions recorded in the household accounts. 11 ½ d was spent on beer for the labourers working on the pools for two days, 7d on eight cart horses and 2 shillings on a fire, which suggest they were of some size. There is also material on other activities here.

A bricklayer called John Perrekyn from Mile End agreed to make 80,000 bricks in a kiln here subject to the Duke providing the necessary wood, sand and straw. Since bricks are heavy and therefore difficult to transport, it would be interesting to know whether these were for use on site or elsewhere. Unfortunately, this question cannot be answered.

The blacksmith of Wivenhoe, a man called Necolas, does seem to have done well out of the household’s presence. He was paid 1s 8d and 13s 8d on successive occasions to produce serpentines, which were small handguns or matchlock firearms which were set off by a slow-burning piece of rope or twine. At least three were made with nine chambers and 2 with 11 chambers by the blacksmith. Later, he was paid £1 2s 6d by the Duke to produce artillery pieces for his vessel, the Barbara, using nine hundredweight of iron to be supplied by the Duke. This kind of weapons production required quite advanced technical skills for the late-fifteenth century.

And there is a lot of evidence of a rather repetitive kind about the purchase of beef and horsemeat, of beer, bread, butter, candles, cream and milk for the Duke’s household. There are glimpses too of his Duchess hiring boatmen to take her up the river Colne to Colchester for which she paid 2d and gave a tip of 1d for beer to the men.

Nor did the household lack entertainment or spiritual instruction. The players of Coggeshall came at least once and there was a chapel with its own choir of boys who had to be fed and clothed. What the accounts refer to as a ‘disguising’, which was probably a primitive kind of masque, was also performed in the Hall.

What is also intriguing are the hints of relationships between the Duke and local people. He personally oversaw the hiring of men for his service. John Coteler was taken on for wages of 10 shillings in 1483 and another local man called Lorkyn got what we would call a bonus of 3 shillings and 4d. We can be sure too that the Duke oversaw the checking of his accounts from the surviving manuscripts.

Wivenhoe was useful to him in other respects too. He was a ship-owner and Admiral of England from 1483 to 1485 when he was responsible for preparing vessels on expeditions for himself or the King. A Wivenhoe man called Kunste was paid £5 for forty nights work he and his men did on a vessel called the Barbara before it sailed to Bordeaux. And a carpenter called Parker got 10 shillings for work he did on one of Norfolk’s vessels here. These incidental details help to provide a partial picture of life here in Wivenhoe in the mid-1480s.

Richard III’s seizure of the Crown enabled John Howard to reach the apex of English society. For John de Vere, in prison at Hammes Castle near Calais, it left him with no option but to escape and join Henry Tudor if he hoped ever to regain his estates. He did so in November, 1484 taking with him his jailer, the disaffected Yorkist, Sir James Blount. Henry’s followers by then included a number of former adherents of Edward IV to whom Oxford was acceptable.

Oxford as an experienced soldier was the obvious figure to command Henry’s troops once they reached these shores in August, 1485. He commanded the vanguard at the battle of Bosworth on 22nd August when he found himself facing Richard’s main force commanded by the Duke of Norfolk. Oxford kept his men tightly packed together in order to prevent them being overwhelmed by superior numbers. When the Duke of Norfolk was killed quite early in the conflict, Richard’s men began to retreat under pressure from Oxford’s troops. It was at this point that Richard III led an assault on Henry’s bodyguard and was himself killed. With their leaders dead, Richard’s forces fled. It was a triumph for Henry VII and for his battlefield commander, the 13th Earl of Oxford.

(The Earl went on to have a career under Henry VII distinguished by his military prowess. He again led the vanguard at the battle of Stoke in 1487 when a Yorkist rebellion was put down and defeated a further rebellion in the North of England in 1489. His last major domestic campaign involved the defeat of Cornish rebels at Blackheath in June, 1495. After that, it was mainly as a regional figure that Oxford served the King rather than as a commander of troops or a Councillor.)

Oxford naturally enough re-gained his former estates after the battle of Bosworth. An Act of Parliament in the autumn of 1485 reversed his attainder and restored his properties. Interestingly enough, the Act described Oxford and his two younger brothers as being ‘of Wivenhoe’, which suggests they thought of this place as their original and primary home rather than Castle Hedingham.

Oxford also got the inheritance of the Scales family and, from 1487, was responsible for overseeing the affairs of his former companion-in-arms, Lord Beaumont, who was incapable of managing them himself. Beaumont and his wife apparently lived here in Wivenhoe Hall until he died in 1507: a year or two later, his widow became Oxford’s second wife. Both are buried behind me before the alter as their brasses indicate.

Oxford certainly profited from the new Tudor regime. He was appointed Admiral of England and Constable of the Tower of London in September 1485 as well as becoming Steward of the Duchy of Lancaster south of the river Trent and Steward of the Forest of Essex. His landed income of c.£3,000 a year plus his fees and profits from the sale of wardships and feudal rights made him one of the wealthiest early sixteenth-century peers. This extra income (without any borrowing) was invested almost entirely in land purchases across northern Essex and in the counties of East Anglia. He was a regional magnate on a scale and of a kind no previous member of his family had ever been.

Oxford appears to have taken a generally conciliatory line towards former Yorkists in this area. Norfolk’s widow and the wife of his eldest son, the Earl of Arundel, were under his protection as their ‘good lord’ in 1486: the Howard family re-gained six of their manors from Oxford in 1489 in return for the payment of an annuity for his lifetime. His nephew and heir, Robert de Vere, married the Earl of Arundel’s daughter by 1514. Oxford seems to have taken the view that the Howards were a permanent feature of the landscape and were likely to work their way back into royal favour, a view that was vindicated by events.

We can see him acting with similar generosity to former Yorkists like the Tyrell family and to Henry Bourchier, the 2nd Earl of Essex, who came of age in 1498 but who was in Oxford’s shadow. Gradually, Oxford drew a substantial proportion of the gentry of Essex and East Anglia into his affinity. He undoubtedly had a major say in the exercise of patronage as aa far as local offices like the Commission of the Peace and Shrievalties were concerned: four of Colchester M.P.s between 1485 and 1511 were his nominees as was one of Maldon’s there were probably more. Light rule worked: there was no prolonged disorder or violence in these places as long as he lived.

The survival of his account book for 1507 tells us most about his relationship with Wivenhoe. It had been his parents’ favourite home and it was here that he came after his first wife’s death. We can see what his household of one hundred and fifty people purchased.

This number indicates that Wivenhoe Hall was a very large house indeed if it could accommodate that many people. It was almost certainly much bigger than Layer Marney Towers, the construction of which began in 1505. It may, perhaps, have been the largest house in Essex or in the East of England at that time. Day by day, this household’s purchases of meat and fish were recorded: month by month, its acquisitions of ale and beer, corn, spices and wine, of candles, oxen, sheep, salted fish and firewood were itemised along with the quarterly payment of wages, – we may not have a plan of Wivenhoe Hall but we can tell from this account book that it had extensive stables capable of housing dozens of horses: it had storerooms for salted fish and meat a wood store sleeping quarters for the Earl’s senior household officers and his family and a large hall as well as a chapel – all of them in Latin numerals and each one checked by the Earl himself. It is likely that he was just as careful in checking his annual accounts, which now survive in fair copies. No one who rose to the top of English society and who hoped to stay there could afford not to exercise careful oversight over his and his family’s affairs.

The Earl was clearly keen on music. His chapel of about ten boys with its master was the only noble chapel ever to perform for the royal household in May, 1506. In 1507, there were payments to minstrels from the households of Prince Henry, of the King, Lord Scrope, Lord Darcy, and the Earl of Arundel spread throughout the year.

There were other entertainments too. In December, 1507, four players from Sudbury put on a pageant in the Hall while five Colchester men put on a ‘disguising’ in the same venue. The Earl’s Council later that month were present when four players from Lavenham performed twice and four from Bocking performed once. It is possible that the house was decorated too: £7 was paid to the Earl’s servant, William Oakley, to buy gold and silver paper, tin foil and counterfeit pearls in London. Admittedly, we do not know what the content of these entertainments was but they may have fostered a sense of communal spirit amongst his household men.

The household accounts also offer us some insight into the Earl’s religious life and that of his household. Wivenhoe Hall evidently had its own chapel where Dr Talbot preached on Good Friday and Easter Sunday in 1507: he was paid 13s 4d for his two sermons. But Oxford also worshiped in this parish church too. The head of the Black Friars in Cambridge received 10 shillings for a sermon as did a friar from Oxford. Four other clergymen, two from Cambridge, one from Bakewell and one, a friar, from Colchester, got the lower rate of 6s 8d. The gift of 6s 8d to the parish priest of Wivenhoe for the feast of St Nicholas might have been an act of piety but it could have been an example of the irreverent practice of appointing a boy Bishop to preside over services and even give sermons before Christmas. If the latter, it testifies to a sense of humour on the Earl’s part.

Death of the 13th Earl of Oxford

Oxford’s time in Wivenhoe was probably one of mourning for his first wife. His second marriage appears to have occurred around November, 1508 and was to the widow of his old companion-in-arms, William, Lord Beaumont. It may have been a marriage of affection – she must have been well known to him by then and his settlement of twenty seven manors on her as her dower was exceedingly generous – or it may have been one of convenience enabling him to retain control of her estates worth about £500 a year at that time. We cannot tell although, at the age of 64, Oxford apparently still hoped for children. He was to be disappointed: he died at Hedingham on 10th March, 1513 at the age of 71: he was buried seventeen days later in Earls Colne Priory before a congregation of 900 mourners, including peers, knights and gentlemen from all over Essex and East Anglia. He was undoubtedly the most powerful man ever to have lived in Wivenhoe and the most influential individual in the history of Essex until the mid-seventeenth century.

Map of Wivenhoe 1874 showing the grounds of Wivenhoe Hall

His widow apparently remained here until her death in 1537. Her will required that she be buried next to her first husband but it also tells us about the people in her household to whom she left bequests: some were her personal servants and probably Wivenhoe women: other beneficiaries were men like her two chaplains, Ralph Bane and Robert Skinner her Marshal of the Hall, John Fabian, and her Gentleman Usher, Robert Goldingham. To this church, St Mary’s, she left a number of rich altar cloths and vestments, a chalice and a cope. She also asked that two hundred masses be said for her soul in the parish church of Wivenhoe and elsewhere. In that sense, she was still a Catholic although obedient to Henry VIII’s Reformation.

Exactly what happened to Wivenhoe Hall is sadder still. In 1562, it passed into the hands of Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford. It was subsequently sold during his rake’s progress to the Townshends of Raynham in Norfolk. By 1594, the surveyor, John Norden, noted in his description of Essex that the house was ‘much decayed’. It was last shown on John Speed’s 1611 map of Essex: by 1627, it and the great park had disappeared. It was certainly the largest house ever to have been in Wivenhoe.


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